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An ultrasonic sensor is a device that measures the distance between two objects using high-frequency sound waves. “Ultrasonic” soundwaves are those with a frequency of 20 kHz or higher. Average ultrasonic sensor range is between 20 kHz and 1 MHz.

Operating Principle:

  • Piezoelectric components are used for the emitting and receiving transducer 
  • An applied voltage causes the piezo element to begin vibrating.
  • The vibration produces high-frequency sound waves (transmitting mode)
  • These impulses are reflected by the target – Echo returns (receiving mode)
  • By measuring the time of flight the echo takes to return, the distance can be calculated by using the speed of sound in air. (time-of-flight measurement)
    • s =(t ∗c)/2    with c=344 m/s (air)

 Meaning of Different Frequencies

Ultrasonic Different Frequencies
 

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